Modern synchrotron sources provide a massive increase in coherent flux. Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) overcomes the resolution limit of X-ray optics to determine structures to better than 100 nm resolution.
In the lensless technique of CDI, the image of the object is recovered from the diffraction pattern of the illuminated sample volume by an iterative software algorithm, which replaces the objective lens. Since the diffracted intensity drops with roughly ~r-4, CDI relies on accurate intensity measurement at wide angles, where the signal is very low.
Ptychography, a scanning modality of CDI, additionally benefits from the high frame rate capabilities of HPC detectors for on-the-fly scans.