Examples of Specific Solutions
The examples below highlight specific solutions that have been successfully realized for our customers.
The use of long wavelengths for anomalous phasing has long been hampered by strong air absorption and large scattering angles. A PILATUS 12M specific solution, built by DECTRIS in close collaboration with the I23 team of Diamond Light Source (DLS), effectively overcomes these limitations. Placing sample and detector in vacuum eliminates air absorption. The semi cylindrical shape of the detector covers a 2-theta range of ±100° and allows the simultaneous collection of low- and high-resolution data.
Armin Wagner, Diamond Light Source, Oxfordshire (UK)
"Long-term experience with PILATUS detectors at DLS, their high data quality and huge scientific success, encouraged us to start the ambitious in-vacuum low-energy PILATUS 12M development project with DECTRIS. Most important for realizing a complex beamline project, DECTRIS proved to be a very competent and reliable partner and stayed in schedule."
Beamline website: Diamond Light Source I23
Multi-modular MYTHEN systems for powder diffraction and scattering techniques are offered as a complete solution, or can be constructed to fit the specific needs of a user. In collaboration with HUBER Diffraction and Position equipment, DECTRIS offers two types of mechanical housings, MYTHEN 6K and 24K, each with radius of 760 mm.
DECTRIS has developed a vacuum-compatible version of the PILATUS 1M hybrid pixel detector in cooperation with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Berlin. The detector was integrated into a vacuum interface, designed by the customer PTB, which can be attached directly to the existing vacuum chamber for window-less operation. The detector has been installed at the PTB four-crystal-monochromator beamline at BESSY II in June 2012, and allows small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments to be carried out free of background, at photon energies down to 1.75 keV. Operation at these long wavelengths offers the additional benefit of increased q-resolution without changing the measurement geometry.
Michael Krumrey, Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany)
"The in-vacuum PILATUS 1M detector has significantly improved our SAXS capabilities, especially for weakly scattering samples and for element-specific measurements at low energies."
Website: PTB Laboratory at BESSY II
In-vacuum version of the PILATUS 1M detector (figure, top) and a grazing-incidence SAXS pattern recorded with the detector at a photon energy of 1.75 keV (figure, bottom). GI-SAXS image courtesy of Michael Krumrey, PTB.
The PILATUS3 2M-DLS-L has been designed to collect the WAXS signal in simultaneous SAXS/WAXS measurements at beamline I22 of Diamond Light Source. This in-vacuum detector is based on the PILATUS3 2M and offers an L-shaped sensitive area formed by 21 PILATUS3 modules. The L-shape is achieved by omitting three detector modules in a corner of the rectangular array of 8 by 3 modules. Direct beam and small angle scattering signal pass close to the detector's active area and propagate through the evacuated flight tube, which is directly attached to the backside of the detector. A PILATUS3 2M detects the SAXS signal downstream at the end of the flight tube. This unique design allows the WAXS detector to be inside the vacuum chamber and makes windows unnecessary.
Beamline website: Diamond Light Source I22
This detector system was designed for the Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) in Hefei, China. The detector head, comprising nine PILATUS modules (see Fig. 1) is part of a new X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for the detection of X-rays in the energy range from 3.1 keV (Ar emission) to 13 keV (Kr emission) at EAST Tokamak. The fast readout time of only 0.95 ms and the high frame rate of 500 Hz, enabled by the PILATUS3 technology, enable real-time feedback for the experiment.
A spectral X-ray imaging camera based on the PILATUS 100K has been built by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for imaging the intensity of different emission lines simultaneously. DECTRIS assisted PPPL in setting up a special energy calibration, in which each pixel in a sub-array of 3×3 pixels can be set to a different threshold, e.g. between 4 keV and 12 keV in steps of 1 keV, as shown. Hereby, a combination of imaging and energy resolution is achieved that makes it possible to distinguish the emission of different elements.
Image adapted from: N.A. Pablant et al., Rev. Scient. Instruments 83, 10E526 (2012), doi: 10.1063/1.4732177.
Manfred Bitter, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (US)
"Our collaboration with DECTRIS led to significant improvements of the high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of hot tokamak and stellarator plasmas. Thanks to the implementation of noise-free single-photon counting detectors from DECTRIS in our x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers, it is now possible to perform Doppler measurements of the ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles with much higher temporal and spatial resolutions than was previously feasible."
The PILATUS 100K module was split into two parts to meet the stringent space requirements at the in-vacuum experimental setup. Inelastic X-ray scattering is synonymous with an extremely low signal. By shortening the standard module to 30 mm and making use of a 1000 µm sensor, it was possible to simultaneously maximize the solid angle and the quantum efficiency at 16 keV photon energy at the medium resolution spectrometer of BL43LXU at SPring-8.
Information about the BL43LXU beamline:
A.Q. Baron, SPring-8 Information 15, 14-19 (2010).